Fair Use Content: When is it Okay to Use Copyrighted Material in Your Video?

April 25, 2018

For many commercial content creators, the urge to use someone else’s content can be a powerful one. Maybe it’s a track of music from an obscure indie band, or that breathtaking time lapse you found on YouTube. One voice in your head says: go ahead use it, your client will think you’re brilliant, and nobody will ever know that it’s stolen. The other voice in your head says: don’t do it, why risk it?

Let me reinforce the voice that says: Don’t do it! Today video is circulated through a vast number of outlets and you never know where it could end up. That obscure music track from the indie band could be topping the charts six months from now. Think about it, what if your client gets a take down notice from YouTube or Vimeo? Or worse, what if someone goes after your client for copyright infringement? Yeah, pretty embarrassing on your part, huh? Especially when they entrusted you with their brand and their good name. If those things aren’t bad enough, ask yourself how you’d feel if someone, without your permission, used your work for their own interest? Maybe they even used it for a political, economic or social cause that you’re totally opposed to? I’m guessing it would probably make you pretty angry, and rightfully so.

Using-Copywrited-MaterialsSo what are the rules for using copyrighted materials?

Well, there is no easy way to answer that question. The Fair Use Doctrine is part of the United States copyright law and it allows creators to incorporate copyrighted material into their work, without obtaining the permission of the copyright owner, when “certain” conditions are met. But even still, the distinction between what’s considered Fair Use and Copyright Infringement is not easily defined.

Define-Your-VideoThe first thing you should do is define your video as commercial or non-commercial.

Non-commercial videos have a lot more “fair use” leeway than commercial videos. If you define your video as commercial, your options for using copyrighted material narrows dramatically. A commercial video is defined as anything that seeks to make money or promote a product or brand. These would include corporate videos for the sales and marketing of a particular company (or products or services that the company provides) – including training, product launches, product demonstrations, etc.

Fair-Use-Copywrite-StatuteThe Fair Use copyright statute gives us four factors to apply on a case-by-case basis.

Vimeo – an online video platform similar to YouTube – defines these four conditions as follows. By the way, I am not a lawyer… please seek legal advice for situations where you need it.

1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature, or is for nonprofit educational purposes.
In other words, does your video alter the original work to give it a new meaning or shed new light on it? Uses that directly appraise or comment on the original work are more likely to be transformative because they add a new meaning or message. On the other hand, are you using the material because you needed to put something in a particular scene, and the copyrighted work happens to fit? Such uses will probably point away from fair use.

2. The nature of the copyrighted work.
What type of copyrighted work are you using? This factor focuses on the content that is being re-used. It weighs against fair use if the original work is highly creative (like a song, movie, or TV show), and will weigh toward fair use if the original work is less creative (like a phone directory, scientific data, or quotes from a historical record).

3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.
How much of the copyrighted work are you using? Is the portion you are using the “heart” of the original work?

Generally speaking, using a great deal of the copyrighted work weighs against fair use. Less extensive use generally weighs in favor of fair use. What is considered extensive depends on the total size of the copyrighted work at issue. There are no clear percentages or calculations that decide how much is too much or where fair use ends and copyright infringement begins. In addition, even relatively small uses can point against fair use if that small use is the “heart” of the work, such as a famous riff in a song or the climactic ending of a film.

4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
Can your use of the copyrighted work stand as a potential substitute for the original?

Uses that might negatively affect the market for the original work strongly weigh against fair use. Uses that have little to no effect will generally weigh in favor of fair use.

​If people could watch your video instead of the original work, this factor is less likely to favor you. The point of fair use is to encourage the creation of more and better works of art, not to enable you to profit from works of others.

As you can see, there’s still a great deal of grey area with regard to commercial video. I find the best and safest way to create content for corporate video is to create it myself. A little imagination and the right gear, and you can create something completely original. But for those times when you absolutely must use copywriten materials, you have a couple of choices.

  1. You can get written permission from the copyright holder, but unless you’re a real sweet talker, this option can be cost prohibitive.
  2. Another resource is Creative Commons. Its combination of search tools and users offers a pool of content that can be copied, distributed, edited, remixed and built upon all within the boundaries of copyright law. I use Creative Commons all the time. 

If you’d like more information about fair use and copyright laws, check out the U.S. Government’s official word on the subject. Stanford University also offers a pretty comprehensive overview that’s worth a look.

In my next blog I’ll be talking about how to navigate through the vast amount of Creative Common content, and some creative techniques for transforming them into compelling content.

Star Wars and Lightsabers… What’s That Gotta Do With Me?

April 10, 2018

I love the Star Wars universe! What I love most is the Jedi Order. The Jedi are the peacekeepers of the galaxy. Jedi start their journey at a young age as Padawan learners. A crucial part of Jedi training is building their Lightsaber, the trademark weapon of a Jedi. Padawans travel to the caves of Ilum, where they find unique crystals encrusted in the cave rocks to power the Lightsabers. At the cave they carefully assemble their weapon with a unique blade color and hilt design… a reflection of the Padawan’s individuality. This weapon becomes the Jedi’s most trusted companion.

Like Padawans, you’re on a journey, both personally and professionally. In your professional journey you might have been handed certain curveballs that are out of your control (being laid-off, a salary cut, no room for growth). However, you have a great deal of control and influence over your professional future. You spend a third of your day working… maybe more. Your work situation can steal from or add to your overall happiness in a big way. So start building a lightsaber career path that’s right for you.

How To Build A Lightsaber Dream Career

Take inventory of what you’ve been givenTake inventory of what you’ve been given, the cards you’ve been dealt, and where you stand right now professionally. Learn from your past mistakes, make amends where possible, and move forward. Let go of any fear, self-doubt, regret, and shame that anchor you to your past. Focus on skills and traits that are positive, constructive, and will help you build something better… those are your starting pieces.

Now do some soul-searching to identify your passionNow do some soul-searching to identify your passion. What’s that one thing you’d like to offer the world… that thing you would do without even being paid to do it? Doing something you’re passionate about is essential to a fulfilling career. There’s your crystal… the essential piece of a Lightsaber.

Is there anyone currently doing what you love for a livingIs there anyone currently doing what you love for a living? Can you call them? Email them? Tweet them? Do they have a blog you can follow? Have they written anything about their own journey? Can you seek a mentor in that arena? Don’t hesitate to follow someone who’s already walked the path you’re embarking on. Every Padawan needs a Jedi Master to learn from.

Find the elements youre missingFind the elements you’re missing to start building your dream. Need further education or training? Need to build a portfolio? What conventions or meet-ups can you attend? Any books you can read? Blogs you can subscribe to? Jobs you can apply for? Find your missing pieces.

Do, Or Do Not… There Is No Try

Do Or Do NotAnd finally, take the time to build the dang thing. Retreat for a weekend if it helps. Dream, strategize, and create a plan, a timeline. Take your first step. Assemble the first piece. Some Lightsabers take longer than others to build… but this isn’t a race, it’s a journey… your journey. So move at your pace, but make sure you’re building.

Take the pieces you’ve got now, add on the pieces you’re missing, identify your crystal, and start building your dream career… one piece at a time.

May the Force be with you!

See Also: Characteristics of a Great Account Executive

Spring Cleaning Is In the Air!

March 28, 2018

March 20th marked the first day of spring this year. As a marketing company based in Florida, this didn’t mean much for us, since we hopped right into our predicted high 80s humid weather. But what spring did connote to us is, spring cleaning! What? Not as excited as we are? You should be! This practice allows you to get organized from all that holiday madness and be more efficient in your daily workflow. Here are a few work tips for franchise employees and owners alike to follow.

Tip #1: Organize that Computer Desktop

Has it been a few months since you’ve seen your desktop image? Do you even remember what it looks like? Now is the time to start organizing all those files into folders. These folders can be labeled in a way that makes the most sense to you and your workflow, but if you’re looking for suggestions, we recommend labeling them by client, project number, or franchise location. This allows you to group similar files together and find them in a jiffy!

Expert Status: You could even go a few steps further and organize them into sub-folders. Here’s a great example:

Good File Structure

Tip #2: Clean-off Your REAL Desktop Area

If you don’t print documents, you probably have a decently clean desk. But for the rest of you, it is time to go through those piles and purge. In order to start clearing out those papers, ask yourself, “does this live online somewhere?” “Will I need to frequently reference this document?” Or, “can this be filed into a corresponding folder?” You will be amazed at how much actually gets tossed and what you don’t end up printing in the future because of this.

Expert Status: Your papers are gone, but how about cleaning out your drawers, disposing of those dead pens, and dusting your picture frames and other desk items? If your desk has never met Clorox wipes, it might be time to make the introduction! (Just think of all the germs that have collected on your phone and computer-eew!)

Tip #3: Update Your Contact Lists

Whether it is your email address book or v-card program, update it! Clear out the old numbers and email addresses, and start adding in all those business cards you’ve been collecting and, ahem, stacking on your desk.

Expert Status: This also can include unsubscribing to various newsletters and emails that you receive and always say you’ll make the time to read, but never do.

Other cleaning and organization ides:
-Rearrange your office. Give it an updated look!
-Buy a spring scent air freshener or scent diffuser to signal an office well-cleaned to your nose.
-Invest in devising an organization plan. Here are some ideas to help get you started.

With all these tips in mind, do yourself a favor and schedule some time to get yourself organized for the rest of the year! If anything, your mother will be proud.

Bicycling: This is How I Unstress

February 28, 2018

If you’re a business owner, work in marketing, or both, you understand the pressures and stresses that go with the territory. Even the most passionate practitioners need avenues to relieve stress.

Bicycling is my stress reliever. There is great satisfaction in a recreational activity that invigorates you mentally and physically, and always brings you back for more.

For the Physical fitnessLet me explain why I love bicycling:

  • For the Physical fitness
  • Huge calorie burner – Burn 2,000+ calories in less than 3 hours
  • Cardio builder – this is great for expanding your lung capacity
  • The biker’s high (AKA the runner’s high) – the euphoric feeling induced by a ride

For the Adventure of DiscoveryFor the Adventure of Discovery

  • New and old, familiar routes- it’s an adventure which gets you into the communities and places you rarely or never see in a car: The PinellasTrail – St Petersburg to Tarpon Springs, or Bayshore through South Tampa to Davis Island, through Downtown Tampa, through Seminole Heights.


See Also: When We Met Herb Young

For the Thrill of NavigatingFor the Thrill of Navigating among the 2,000 Pound Beasts

  • Know the rules of the road – If you don’t, you’re a traffic statistic
  • Danger exists – riding in urban traffic and sharing the road with cars, trucks and buses requires you to ride uber aware, be smart, and constantly communicate with your ride group
  • Be visible – that’s why we love wearing the colorful biking jerseys

For the Love of Your BikeFor the Love of Your Bike

I appreciate the beauty in the efficiency, performance and durability designed into my road bike. It’s like a sports car with a super lightweight aluminum frame and carbon fork which dampen road vibration to reduce rider fatigue. A carbon air pump and all important water bottle cage mount to the lower frame. The saddle is sleek to cut more weight, provide firmness, control and comfort and firmly mounted on a carbon stem. The bike rolls on 130 psi road tires, and it’s a delight to flawlessly shift through the 18 speed gear range. It’s a highly functional and self sufficient means of transportation, and the “trunk” is a compact under-seat bag which carries an extra tube, tire levers, tire patches, metric Allen wrench to make road repairs.

Planning your ridePlanning Your Ride Is a Great Exercise to Help You Get Mentally and Physically Prepared

  • Who are you riding with … fast, serious riders or casual, social riders?
  • What’s the day’s route … high traffic, urban downtown Tampa or scenic trails to country paths that were made for human and bicycle traffic?
  • What will the weather conditions be … what riding gear will you be wearing that day to deal with the cold, the heat, the rain?
  • How long is the ride … it may be a typical 25 mile ride with a single stop or a longer 40 – 50 mile ride with several planned stops.
  • The right food and stop breaks can add greatly to the pain or joy in the ride.

Last and not least, it’s fun to see people in cars with A/C on full blast in the middle of a Florida summer, staring out at you as if you’re a lunatic and finishing that 3-hour ride in 90-degree heat, drenched in sweat and somehow feeling cleansed.

How do you relieve stress?

Herb Photos

 See Also: Fun In The Workplace – How Fun Equals Profits

You’re Hired! Dissecting Your First Day at a New Job.

January 25, 2018

You charmed the recruiter, avoided most swear words during your phone interview, and padded your resume just enough to not raise suspicion. Congratulations! You got the job. So now what? 

Heading to your first day at a new job can take you back to your first day at school. “Will the new kids like me?”, “Will I be able to find the cafeteria?”, “Why can’t I stop peeing in my pants?”

But worry not my fellow first-timers. At one time or another, we’ve all been there. As for me, I’ve been there recently, having just started working at Marketing in Color (MIC) three months ago. With the emotions still fresh in my mind, I wanted to write a brief primer for anyone out there getting ready to step foot in a new office for the first time.


Pre-Game Jitters

The day starts with picking out your favorite outfit, the “never get a second chance to make a first impression” outfit. Sadly, my wardrobe could best be described as “what you’d find on clearance if Big Lots sold menswear”. But this isn’t about me, it’s about you. Let’s move on.

Once you’re looking good and feeling confident, it’s off to work you go. Not sure about traffic, you get there way too early and end up in the parking lot for 45 minutes listening to NPR. This is usually when the nerves kick in. When the appropriate amount of people begin to arrive, you exit your car and prepare to walk through the pearly gates of your new work life. Go get ’em, tiger!


“Hi. And You Are?”

Get ready to meet the group you’ll be spending more time with over the coming years than your own family. It’s a tall order. If the company is large, you may feel like a dust particle that got stuck in a microscope slide. If it’s small, you’ll feel more like you’re visiting your significant other’s family for the first time at Thanksgiving (you won’t know any of the jokes, everyone seems a tad suspicious of you).  

You exchange pleasantries with the gatekeepers, do the tour, the meet-and-greets, then get settled into your new home away from home. If you picked the right company, and I’m sure you did, most of the people are courteous and helpful. The day flies by and you feel it went well. Susan in finance complimented your meeting doodle, you discovered your office door locks, and no one seemed to think the joke you told at lunch was inappropriate. Great job!


The First Day Can Tell You A Lot

 Some people say they knew they were going to marry their husband or wife on the very first date. Similarly, you’ll probably be able to tell on Day One if this is a company you’ll want to spend a good chunk of your career on. How? It’s all about the vibe.

Every company has a vibe that reveals itself on Day One. I believe the preferred nomenclature in business speak is “company culture”. The brass believes this trickles down from the top, and it can. But the true soul of any company is the summation of its foot soldiers.

Now, this being a company blog, I’d be remiss if I didn’t talk about the vibe I discovered on my first day at MIC.


My Kind of Place

When you work in a creative field, you get used to working with colorful characters. Some are quirky, smart, and funny. Others are brash, loud, and arrogant. Dealing with ego is almost a necessary evil in the advertising world – call it a work hazard.

That’s why it floored me to experience such a high level of talent at every level of MIC without the faintest glimmer of hubris.

I would learn this wasn’t by accident. Most shops focus squarely on work and resumés when mining for new hires. Not good enough at MIC. They focus on personality just as much as talent. Sure, you may have a great book, or a killer resumé. But do you have a good heart? Are you honest? Are you kind? Each employee is a puzzle piece, the perfect fit needed to join together and build something great.

The results of this experiment speak for themselves. The company continues to outpace its own growth projections, and the work keeps getting better and better.

One heartbeat, all working together, accomplishing amazing things. Pretty cool.

I’ve worked for a lot of companies who were proud of their perks: game rooms, on-site massage parlors, nap rooms. And while those things are great, at MIC I found a unique company perk that they didn’t even advertise: a family.

So good luck on your first day at the new job. Who knows, you could be walking into a family of your own. If not, we’re always taking resumés.

WordPress: A Love-Hate Relationship

January 15, 2018

Pick a topic out of thin air – say hot beverages – and it’s guaranteed that everyone has an opinion on that topic. Some people are ardent coffee drinkers. Other people are strong tea lovers. And others don’t really have strong feelings about either one. Contrarily, web developers always have strong opinions about what they do and how they do it. And for every developer who has their reasons for loving a particular tool or framework, there’s always another developer out there who vehemently hates the same tool or framework for the same reasons the developer loves it.

It isn’t really about what YOU like

DeveloperThis love-hate relationship has never been more apparent than it is with the platform WordPress. As a blogging tool or content management system, developers from all walks of life either love it or hate it, and often for the exact same reasons. But this isn’t an analysis or review of the code and what is good or bad about it. Because honestly, the folks who code for a living are just one part of this equation. And while developers can have difficulty putting the technical aspects of WordPress aside, it is worth reviewing to understand the functional aspects of it. For instance, a developer may have to install WordPress and set it up and get it working, but that doesn’t mean they will be responsible for maintaining the website. Often that is the developer’s customer – the owner (or other staff members) of the business that the website is for.

See Also: Accounting For SEO

It is really about what THEY need

ClientWhen looking at WHAT it does, and not HOW it does it, it’s surprising to discover that the people who just use WordPress are often its biggest fans. From its clean and easy to use dashboard, users can easily add pages or posts to their website, and even add images and links in their content. A lot of WordPress users LIKE the control that the interface gives them, and they’re happy to take a more active and hands-on approach to managing their website. And as the site’s administrator, they also have a great deal of control over all the users of the site, and what each user is allowed to do and see.

There will always be those who still go against it, but for many, WordPress empowers individuals to truly control and manage their content which ultimately allows them to control their brand entity as a whole. Now what’s to hate about that?

See Also: Keep Your Brand Healthy … Check Your Thermometer

Don’t Skip that Survey!

December 19, 2017

“We’d love to hear from you!” “Your feedback is extremely valuable to us.” “How’d we do?” Whether post-purchase, following an event, or dodging clipboard-toting data collectors in your local mall, these are common phrases we hear soliciting survey collection, or more broadly, marketing research. How often do you take one of these surveys, and if you’re a company, do they really matter?

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I used to have no hesitation deleting an email from my inbox prompting a survey. When survey pop-ups would appear on a site I was visiting, I’d quickly exit out to continue browsing. I would associate surveys with time, and with seemingly less and less of it, I couldn’t see the value in completing a survey.

In my last year of grad school, my predisposition against surveys took a 180-degree turn, however, following a course in marketing research and opportunity analysis. I soon became the tablet-wielding data collector I so often avoided, standing in a restaurant and asking customers for a moment of their time as they waited for their orders. My course took me through the marketing research process, from defining a problem to exploratory research, data collection, and data analysis.

Understanding the value of survey research from both business and consumer viewpoints, I now willingly take surveys that come my way. If your business has a marketing dilemma or opportunity, a survey may be the tool to guide your decision—if conducted properly.




The Importance of Surveys

Surveys offer a scientific framework to marketing decision making. Whether planning for a $5 million 30-second Super Bowl commercial spot, changing branding, or creating new menu offerings, businesses need information to make these big and costly decisions. Surveys help us understand our demographic’s characteristics, wants, and needs. They provide the data we need to ground the creative side of marketing with scientific analysis.

As consumers, surveys are important to ensuring our voices are heard, whether that’s in requesting new products or service offerings, or providing feedback to improving our experiences.




Following the Process

To get the most valuable information out of a survey, you must follow the marketing research process—simply brainstorming a few questions and uploading them to SurveyMonkey won’t cut it.

The process starts by defining a problem or opportunity your business is facing that requires a decision. Exploratory research follows, and this can include literature searches, depth interviews, secondary data collection, case studies, benchmarking, focus groups, and of course, surveys, which are built to test hypotheses about your chosen problem or opportunity. Analysis of the data set follows your survey, where trends are discovered and hypotheses are proven true or false. It is a lengthy but valuable process that can offer guidance to a firm’s marketing decision making.




Increasing Response Rates

As important as surveys are to your firm, your customers may not understand the value in completing them, an attitude I clearly once held. A low response rate can affect your research results, so to overcome this, consider the following tips.

  1. Incentivize your respondents: Every time I make a purchase from one of my favorite retailers, my receipt is accompanied with a URL directing me to complete a survey that will enter me into a weekly drawing for a $250 gift card. I take this survey almost every time I shop at that retailer because the incentive makes it worth it. Consider what your sample pool will value. For a B2B service firm, maybe it is a free one-hour consultation. For a quick-service restaurant, it could be a free beverage. Incentives create an exchange in the consumer mindset: I’m giving you my time for something in return. There is a lot to consider before offering a survey incentive, but it can be a great tool in boosting response rates.
  2. Keep it brief: Nothing deters me more from a survey than length. The longer a survey, the greater risk you face of respondents dropping off or outright avoiding taking it. You may have 30 minutes worth of questions you’d like to ask your survey pool, but are all those questions necessary? A shorter survey can provide a higher response rate and ensure greater reliability in response.
  3. Ensure confidentiality or anonymity: Ensuring confidentiality or anonymity can elicit not only a higher response rate but also more honest responses. This is crucial when requesting sensitive or honest feedback on the performance of a product, service, location, or business representative.

Marketing research and survey collection are complex and guided by research-backed processes. If your business is faced with a major marketing decision, consider surveys a key tool in your decision-making framework. 

When Words Aren’t Just Words

December 8, 2017

Shortly after Thanksgiving, I was in the kitchen with a few co-workers when I brought up the subject of tryptophan poisoning (I was heating up homemade turkey soup). A colleague who happens to be vegetarian commented with, “Oh I wondered about that; I just thought my grandpa always took a nap after Thanksgiving dinner.”  That led to another colleague’s response of “Isn’t that why plays that bomb on Broadway are called turkeys? Because they put people to sleep?” 

And just like that, I found my blog topic.

I write for a living so why not write about words?

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Words can be fascinating and their origins, even more so. History tells us that the roots of the English language began when Germanic tribes migrated to Britain from the 5th to 11th centuries A.D. By that time, Latin and Old Norse (thanks, Vikings), and most especially, the Anglo-Norman French from the Norman Conquest in 1066, had begun playing a substantial role in the English lexicon. 

Here, then, are some familiar words you might hear around the office and the history of their origins. 

When Words Aren't Just Words - Icon In-Text Image - 1 DeadlineDeadline. That crazy deadline you’re facing? It’s not as dangerous compared to how the word came to be. During the Civil War, Confederate Captain Bowie wrote a report on the Andersonville, GA prison camp which detailed:

On the inside of the stockade and twenty feet from it there is a dead-line established, over which no prisoner is allowed to go, day or night, under penalty of being shot.

 Early in the 19th century, “deadline” was used to denote a line on the printing press in which text would not print properly, and shortly thereafter, it referred to a time limit, specifically associated with newspaper lingo.

When Words Aren't Just Words - Icon In-Text Image - 2 SalarySalary. From the Latin salarium, meaning payment for salt. During ancient times, salt was considered “white gold,” due to its multi-functional uses; an antiseptic to treat wounds, a food preservative, and a method of payment. Egyptians paid their laborers with salt to preserve their food, and the Roman Empire continued to use salt as payment. Hence, the word “salary:” for that which was given to workers at the end of the working month. 

When Words Aren't Just Words - Icon In-Text Image - 3 SandwichSandwich. John Montagu, the fourth Earl of Sandwich in the 18th century, had many vices, one of which was gambling. Not wanting to soil his hands with greasy food whilst he played cards, he asked for some beef served between two slices of bread. Others starting asking for “the same as Sandwich” and the ultimate lunchtime convenience was born. 

When Words Aren't Just Words - Icon In-Text Image - 4 CoffeeCoffee. Your morning Joe was discovered circa the year 850 A.D. by an Ethiopian goatherder who noticed his goats acting strangely after eating certain berries. Upon trying them himself and getting excited by its effects, he and his fellow Arabs figured out how to dry and boil the berries. They called the brew “qahwah.” Qahwah traveled to Yemen where it was cultivated, to Turkey where it was roasted, then eventually to Europe, where the Italian caffe gave way to “coffee.”

When Words Aren't Just Words - Icon In-Text Image - 5 AvocadosAvocado. For all you millennials who love your avocado toast, the word “avocado” comes from Nahuati, an Aztec language, and means . . . wait for it . . . testicles. Apparently to the Aztecs, that’s what they looked like hanging in the trees. 

When Words Aren't Just Words - Icon In-Text Image - 6 FreelanceFreelance. During medieval times, the word “free lance” referred to a mercenary who would fight for whoever paid them the most. In Sir Walter Scott’s novel, Ivanhoe” he writes:

I offered Richard the service of my Free Lances, he refused them – I will lead them to Hull, seize on shipping, and embark for Flanders. . . “

The takeaway

So there you have it. Words with fascinating origins that help bring them to life.  

Now, go forth and enjoy your coffee and avocado toast, and order a sandwich for lunch. Meet your deadlines with gusto if you want to increase your salary! Miss them, and you may end up freelancing.